- Advanced Oxidation
- Oxygen Generation
- Natural Technologies
- Biodegradable polymers
- Ultra-hydrophobic materials
- Hydrogen Generation
- Hydrogen Technology
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 can be an immediate, convenient source of oxygen.
The general reaction of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition results in the formation of water molecule and oxygen gas:
2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2
In practice however, this reaction does not occur easily and needs a catalyst. In nature, such catalyst exist commonly in almost all living organisms - catalase. Commonly available solutions of hydrogen peroxide (cosmetic and food grade) are often stabilized against decomposition and they contain chemicals that prevent formation of oxygen in normal conditions.
Catalysts can be very efficient in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. It is a fast and convenient method of producing oxygen, where high flow of oxygen can be easily and safely achieved. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on the other hand can be extremely powerful and can be used as a rocket propellant, for example.
Heterogeneous catalyst developed at Hydrogen Link has an additional advantage. It is solid and does not diissolve in the solution, therefore it can be reused many times with new portions of hydrogen peroxide, while the reaction product is simply clean water. Other advantages of our heterogeneous catalyst are very high efficiency (much higher than manganese dioxide or silver) and low cost .The presence of stabilizers in hydrogen peroxide does not impair the decomposition and any type and grade of H2O2 can be used
Gaseous oxygen has a multitude of uses - from health supplementation (altitude sickness, breathing problems, blood circulation problems, and "well-being" oxygen supplementation) to fish tank aeration, water aeration, agricultural and horticultural uses, as well as a variety of chemical reactions.
“Solid” source of oxygen
Hydrogen peroxide is commonly available as a water solution, with concentrations ranging from 3% (household use) up to 50% (industrial concentration). For some applications the ballast of water in the solution to be handled and transported represents a disadvantage. In such cases, solid forms of hydrogen peroxide can be used, such as adducts of H2O2 with sodium carbonate or urea.
Sodium percarbonate (SPC) - Na2CO3·1.5H2O2 - is a crystalline adduct of H2O2 with sodium carbonate (“ash soda”). It is a convenient and concentrated source of hydrogen peroxide., easy to handle and transport. The amount of hydrogen peroxide by weight in sodium percarbonate exceeds 30%. It can be handled more conveniently and more safely than the same concentration of H2O2 in water solutions. Hydrogen peroxide can be released form SPC into even small quantities of water, or into anhydrous solvents. However, the decomposition of thus released hydrogen peroxide still needs a catalyst. to produce oxygen.
In water, sodium percarbonate releases hydrogen peroxide according to the reaction:
2Na2CO3.3H2O2 → 2Na2CO3 + 3H2O2
This solution behaves similarly to the water-based hydrogen peroxide. Sodium percarbonate is used in many laundry detergents and cleaning products which are environmentally friendly, such as OxiClean and Vanish.
Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from sodium percarbonate is equally efficient as from the water-based H2O2 – both as the source of oxygen and as the source of hydroxyl radicals, if needed for specialized chemical reactions.
Our heterogeneous catalyst can be used to generate oxygen from the solid sodium percarbonate (SPC) in a variety of reactions:
- Solid SPC + solid catalyst – can be conveniently transported and handled and subsequently combined with some water for oxygen generation
- Solid SPC can be first dissolved in water, and the solid catalyst added to the solution to generate oxygen.
Sodium percarbonate structure Sodium percarbonate Sodium percarbonate with catalyst
The reaction proceeds until all hydrogen peroxide is consumed. Further portions of sodium percarbonate can be added to the same catalyst for more oxygen to be generated.
Sodium percarbonate is a very efficient source of oxygen. The amount of 30% of H2O2 in the solid corresponds to a significant amount of released oxygen. For example, 10 g of catalyzed sodium percarbonate (a table spoon) produces more than 1 liter of oxygen gas. Actually, more oxygen can be obtained from the catalyzed sodium percarbonate than from a pressurized (150 bars) gas cylinder of the same total weight (steel cylinder weight included). Moreover, sodium percarbonate can be used in as small as "sachet" portions and it does not involve high pressures. The only by product is ash soda - a common and benign household product, often used even in food.
Percarbamide (Carbamide Peroxide)
Another convenient solid source of hydrogen peroxide is carbamide peroxide (or percarbamide) which is an adduct of urea and hydrogen peroxide. It is a white odorless, non-toxic powder containing a large percentage of H2O2 - equivalent by weight to 36% concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Our heterogeneous catalyst enables efficient oxygen release form urea-hydrogen peroxide adduct and as such it can be used as a very convenient oxygen source or oxidative medium. The amount of produced oxygen is even higher than with the use of sodium percarbonate.
Catalyzed oxygen generation from hydrogen peroxide
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